Are You Controlled by Your Inner Pigdog? - the Neurobiology of Choice

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"I do not understand what I do. For what I want to do, I do not do, but what I hate, I do." - St. Paul 

You really want to lose weight. You're at a party. There's a great big dripping slice of chocolate cake in front of you.


I want it. I won't have it. I will. I won't. Yes. No!


Two voices arguing in a single head. What's going on?


Incognito, by David EaglemanNeuroscientist David Eagleman shines a light on this peculiar and familiar aspect of human experience in his book Incognito: The Secret Lives of the Brain. (Beams and Struts will be reporting from the Being Human 2012 Conference, where Eagleman will be a featured speaker. And it just so happens I'd read Incognito, as well as his work of fiction Sum: Forty Tales of the Afterlives. Both excellent reads, y'all.)


The grey matter in our skull doesn't work like an assembly line, with each worker specializing in a specific task. It's more of an inner parliament. "Brains are like representative democracies," Eagleman says. "They are built of multiple, overlapping experts who weigh in and compete over different choices. There is an ongoing conversation among the different factions in your brain, each competing to control the single output channel of your behaviour."


One political party craves the energy of the sugar and the social acceptance of eating cake with everyone else. The other party sees the consequences: guilt, self-recrimination, blocked arteries, a heart attack and cankles. The parties rage and debate over the course of an hour or a microsecond, and you either eat the cake or you don't.


"As Walt Whitman correctly surmised," Eagleman states, "we are large and we harbor multitudes within us. And those multitudes are locked in chronic battle."


We can name these disputing factions: the short term gain party and the long term good party. The devil on one shoulder and the angel on the other. Ancient Jews, Eagleman says, called them the gufa dog wearing a pig costume (the body) and the nefesh (soul). Germans say that someone trying to delay instant gratification has to overcome their innerer Schweinehund - their "inner pigdog."


Don't underestimate the power of your inner pigdog. He gets you to smoke that cigarette. It'll probably give you lungs full of tar, yellow teeth, stinky fingers and a permanently soft prick, but that's in the future. It'll relieve stress now. Give in to that impulse purchase you can't afford. Put it on your card. Treat yourself. Cheat on your partner. Run off and play in the labyrinth of the internet instead of doing the creative work you've always wanted to do. You'll feel better now. Sure you'll feel shitty later, but later only exists in the abstract. It's nothing compared to now.


There's another canine analogy for these inner struggles, which I first encountered in an issue of Daredevil. It's appeared many other places as well, including in addiction counselling:


"A native American elder said 'Inside of me there are two dogs. One of the dogs is mean and evil. The other dog is good. The mean dog fights the good dog, all of the time.' When asked which dog wins, he reflected for a moment and replied 'The one I feed the most.'"


the brain's various lobes, including the frontal lobeIn terms of neuroscience, Eagleman reveals that a strong inner pigdog corresponds to an underdeveloped frontal lobe. This part of the brain takes longer to reach full growth than the others. It isn't fully formed until adulthood. That's why children are bad at impulse control. Even though we purport to believe that everyone is equal before the law, we apply lighter criminal sentencing for a person younger than eighteen - a somewhat arbitrary and inadequate age designation when weighed against the timetables of neuroscience. And even the initial premise of equal culpability amongst adults is flawed. Eagleman writes "This built-in myth of human equality suggests that all people are equally capable of decision making, impulse control, and comprehending consequence. While admirable, the notion is simply not true."


You know who has great big raging inner pigdogs? Addicts. Bad at controlling impulses. No thought to long term consequences. Give me what I want, now, now, now. Even if it means deceit, broken relationships, lost jobs, crime, destitution, prostitution, homelessness, HIV infection. That's a pigdog with rabies and fangs on your neck. What's going on with that?


In the Realm of Hungry Ghosts, a book by Gabor Mate, MDGabor Mate, MD explores this in his book In the Realm of Hungry Ghosts: Close Encounters with Addiction. He worked for ten years with addicts of all kinds in Vancouver's Downtown Eastside - the poorest, most drug addled neighbourhood in Canada.


He writes that addiction has everything to do with brain development, especially in early childhood. For our first three years, our brains develop at the same rate they did in the womb:


"There are times in the first year of life when, every second, multiple millions of nerve connections, or synapses, are established. …. In the early stages of life, the infant's brain has many more neurons and connections than necessary - billions of neurons in excess of what will eventually be required. This overgrown, chaotic synaptic tangle needs to be trimmed to shape the brain into an organ that can govern action, thought, learning and relationships and carry out its multiple and varied other tasks - and to coordinate them all in our best interests. Which connections survive depends largely on input from the environment. Connections and circuits used frequently are strengthened, while unused ones are pruned out: indeed scientists call this aspect of neural Darwinism synaptic pruning."


The life stories of Mate's patients are riddled with emotional, physical and sexual abuse, usually going back to earliest childhood. These repeated incidents of violation imprint directly on the brain and form behaviour patterns that play out through a person's life. Mate writes that mistreated children have been found to have brains seven or eight percent smaller than those of people who didn't suffer traumatic childhoods.


a dog on steroids"Early trauma also has consequences for how human beings respond to stress all their lives," Mate says, "and stress has everything to do with addiction."


How so? Addiction - whether to cocaine, the internet, beer, television, crystal meth, sexual conquest, purchasing shoes, or earning greater and greater accolades in one's profession - is a means to relieve stress. The inner pigdog gets wired in early, and its jaws are strong. A prolonged addiction progressively reshapes and cripples the exact neural mechanisms that make choices. One's inner parliament becomes more and more populated with pigdogs. Big muscular ones that look that look like those bizarre steroid bulls. And guess which kinds of laws and statutes will be enacted by that governing body.


So what can we do?


David Eagleman describes a rehabilitative therapy being developed by Stephen LaConte and Pearl Chiu: a frontal lobe workout. They use real-time brain imaging to monitor which parts of a person's brain are active, and how active they are, as they try to resist a big gooey slice of chocolate cake.


"The activity in those networks is represented by a vertical bar on a computer screen. Your job is to make the bar go down. The bar acts as a thermometer for your craving: If your craving networks are revving high, the bar is high; if you're suppressing your craving, the bar is low. You stare at the bar and try to make it go down. Perhaps you have insight into what you're doing to resist the cake; perhaps it is inaccessible. In any case, you try out different mental avenues until the bar begins to slowly sink. When it goes down, it means you've successfully recruited frontal circuitry to squelch  the activity in the networks involved in impulsive craving. The long term has won over the short. Still looking at pictures of chocolate cake, you practice making the bar go down over and over until you've strengthened those frontal circuits. By this method, you're able to visualize the activity in the parts of your brain that need modulation, and you can witness the effects of different mental approaches you might take."


Eagleman suggests this kind of therapy as an alternative to our current system of incarceration, which has proven a spectacular failure in terms of deterrence and rehabilitation. Don't stick criminals into an overcrowded hell hole where they'll need to be fiercer than ever to survive, and then eventually release them to the public. How is that supposed to make people better behaved? Let's help those who've shown they think dominantly about short term gain to pump up the parts of their brains that see into the distance.


brain with the words Yes and No on opposite hemispheres"The goal is to give more control to the neural populations that care about long-term consequences. To inhibit impulsivity. To encourage reflection. If a citizen thinks about long-term consequences and still decides to move forward with an illegal act, then we'll deal with those consequences accordingly. This approach has ethical importance and libertarian appeal. Unlike a lobotomy which sometimes leaves the patient with only an infantile mentality, this approach opens an opportunity for a willing person to help himself. Instead of a government mandating a psychosurgery here a government can offer a helping hand to better self-reflection and socialization. This approach leaves the brain intact - no drugs or surgery - and leverages the natural mechanisms of brain plasticity to help the brain help itself. It's a tune-up rather than a product recall."


(So far there are no verifiable peer reviewed results that validate this as the therapy of the future and the future of therapy. But Eagleman says that even if this version doesn't work, it provides a new model, and offers an alternative to the belief that incarceration is the only way to deal with law-breakers.)


And how about the rest of us, struggling not to eat that chocolate cake, or to make that impulse buy, or engage in any kind of self-defeating behaviour - how do we feed our mean dog less?


Not by ignoring its barks and growls and the snaps of its jaws. Not by barking back. Not by chastising ourselves for having a mean dog in us in the first place. And not by chasing it away.


To deny one's pigdog strengthens it. But its power dissipates in the face of light, knowledge and understanding.


Gabor Mate says "Mindful awareness involves directing our attention not only to the mental content of our thoughts, but also to the emotions and mind-states that inform those thoughts. It is being aware of the processes of our mind even as we work through its materials. Mindful awareness is the key to unlocking the automatic patterns that fetter the addicted brain and mind."


This process is bound to be long, arduous and riddled with setbacks. Is it worth doing?


Well, imagine you found yourself a passenger in a car being driven by a froth-mouthed canine. Fighting it only tightened its grip on the wheel. But the prolonged, taxing and often frustrating process of inner observation, courageous self-exploration and compassionate inquiry allowed you to slowly switch places.


Would you do it?


And if you succeeded, where would you drive to, finding yourself actually in the driver's seat for the first time in your life?

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  • Comment Link David MacLeod Wednesday, 14 March 2012 16:10 posted by David MacLeod

    Well done, TJ! These are exciting times in the field of neuroscience. Gabor Mate also has a chapter (In the Realm of Hungry Ghosts, chapter 31: The Four Steps, Plus One) discussing Jeffrey Schwartz's process, originally developed for OCD patients, but should also be effective for "anyone wishing to disengage from maladaptive habits of thinking or acting."

    The process basically strengthens "the ability of conscious attention to transform the automatic mind and its physiological substrates in the brain..." The process is based in the relatively new thinking around neuroplasticity - that the adult brain is NOT hardwired - old wiring can be dismantled, and new wiring can be built.

    Step 1 is to relabel: label the urge exactly for what it is. Observe with conscious attention, and realize the urge to eat the cake is not based on a need, but rather a dysfunctional thought.

    Step 2 is to Re-attribute: attribute the difficulty to your brain process instead of blaming yourself for bad thoughts or moral failings. Mate writes: "'Hello old brain circuits,' you say, 'I see you're still active. Well, so am I.'"

    Step 3: Refocus. Find something else to do that you enjoy, and do it for at least 15 minutes. Do this activity with full consciousness and awareness of why you are doing it. By doing this you're laying down new neural pathways and weakening the old ones. You are teaching the brain that "it doesn't have to obey the addictive call."

    Step 4: Re-value. Here you remind yourself of all the negative consequences of the behavior you're trying to change, and why you're engaging in this new 4 Step Process. Mate writes: "In the Re-value step you de-value the false gold. You assign it it its proper worth: less than nothing."

    Mate adds a fifth step to Schwartz's four step process. Step 5 is Re-create. "Write down your values and intentions and, one more time, do so with conscious awareness. Envision yourself living with integrity, creative and present, being able to look people in the eye with compassion for them - and for yourself. The road to hell is not paved with good intentions. It is paved with lack of intention. Re-create."

    Some other great books that deal with neuroplasticity:
    You Are Not Your Brain: The Four Step Solution... by Jeffrey Schwartz
    The Brain That Changes Itself by Norman Doidge
    Train Your Mind, Change Your Brain by Sharon Begley
    Mindsight by Dan Siegel (discusses the important topic of "the neurobiology of we" and the potent skill that is the basis for both emotional and social intelligence.)

  • Comment Link Liz Hatherell Thursday, 15 March 2012 13:21 posted by Liz Hatherell

    Gordon Neufeld(co-author with Mate) has added much in this area. As well as their book Hold On To Your Kids, Neufeld offers courses and presentations in equipping those who work with children and adolescents, to help them grow up. Only those with strong warm connections (relationships) with their children will have the kind of impact they are hoping for in forwarding maturity, especially in this area of integration.

  • Comment Link TJ Dawe Friday, 16 March 2012 23:06 posted by TJ Dawe

    David - thanks for adding this dimension to this look at the topic: practical steps anyone can take. Awareness in the first step, doing something with that awareness is the next (and easy to forego).

    Neuroplasticity is fascinating to me. I remember learning the conventional wisdom of the time in high school science classes, that the brain cells you're born with are all you get. What a thing to find out in my thirties that it ain't necessarily so. It's an exciting time, given the discoveries neuroscientists are making, and that there are so many books available on the subject that are accessible to the everyday reader. Thanks for the titles you provided. One writer Mate references multiple times is Antonio Damasio.

    A book that deals with cultivating mindful awareness, which, at the hesitation of sounding like a name-dropper, was recommended to me by Mate, is The Presence Process: A Healing Journey Into Present Moment Awareness, by Michael Brown. I've got it on my shelf. It's waiting its turn to help me befriend my inner pigdog and actually think.

    Liz - I'm a big fan of Hold on to Your Kids, and my sister took a course taught by one of Neufeld's students, and spoke very highly of what she and her husband learned there. I'd love to have a contribution from her - or you - on the subject for this site. Parenting is, uh, kind of important.

  • Comment Link Tracy Saturday, 17 March 2012 06:06 posted by Tracy

    Once again, TJ, thank you. I enjoy reading what you write. I'm no philosopher or academic. Your writing is approachable from all levels. Always something to take with me on my journey as mother, wife, and women striving to learn more.

  • Comment Link David MacLeod Saturday, 17 March 2012 16:45 posted by David MacLeod

    I want to connect a few dots here that will hopefully underscore the importance of the subject at hand and its relationship to issues larger than our personal lives.

    I think most of us here would agree that if we want to Occupy Integrally, it must include Occupying our own lives, or as the title of this article suggests, controlling our inner pigdog.

    The Mindport Musings blog put it like this in a post titled "Occupy Yourself": "If the Wall Street protesters indeed have been vague or confused about their demands, it may be because they haven't quite yet discovered that much of what needs to be demanded is inside themselves, and not available from the empty husks personified by Bankers, Wall Street, corporate manipulators and their government lackeys. Protesters, and all of us, must begin to demand from ourselves the aforementioned creative energy to devise a whole new culture that is both kind to people and does not require infinite economic growth and continuously increasing energy input for its perpetuation."

    The current situation with climate change, peak oil, economic instability suggests that we MUST begin making other arrangements with our lives. Why are we so slow at doing so? Because we tend to discount future consequences in favor of present rewards. We can more easily connect to the immediate gratification from eating that slice of chocolate cake than we can to to some vague future consequence.

    Nate Hagens wrote a series of blog posts a few years ago on this tendency, with titles such as Climate Change, Sabre Tooth Tigers and Devaluing the Future ( and The Psychological and Evolutionary Roots of Resource Overconsumption Revisited (

    Hagens writes: "This post examines our own history on the planet, outlines how the ancient-derived reward pathways of our brain are easily hijacked by modern stimuli, and concludes that in very real ways, we have become addicted to the 'consumptive behaviors' linked to oil. "Traditional" drug abuse happens because natural selection has shaped behavior regulation mechanisms that function via chemical transmitters. Just as an addict becomes habituated to cocaine, heroin or alcohol, the 'normal person' possesses neural architecture to become habituated via a positive feedback loop to the 'chemical sensations' we receive from shopping, keeping up with the joneses (conspicuous consumption), pursuing more stock options and profits, and myriad other stimulating activities that a large social energy surplus provides. In order to overcome addictions, it is usually not enough to argue about which year the drug supply is going to begin its decline. It's a better path to understand the addiction, admit it before one hits rock bottom, and either begin the cold turkey process or become addicted to something else."

    Hagens' posts are quite informative and fascinating, but leave one with the feeling that we're somewhat doomed to live within the confines of our poorly evolved and addicted brains.

    The writers I've mentioned in my previous comment, and the ones mentioned in TJ's article, offer some exciting opportunities for us to be able to better take charge of changing our brain's physical structure and our behaviors.

    These new technologies are not just for rehabilitating "criminals." They are for us to "[leverage] the natural mechanisms of brain plasticity to help the brain help itself." (Eagleman as quoted by TJ)

    So let's occupy our own lives and work on developing our frontal lobes, so that we may become more creative as we enter a new era of living sustainably with far less fossil fuel resources.

  • Comment Link TJ Dawe Monday, 19 March 2012 01:36 posted by TJ Dawe

    David - excellently said. The process of befriending and understanding our inner pigdogs is instrumental in dealing with the world's ills. And given our technological capacity to make the earth unliveable (for humans, at least), the stakes couldn't be higher.

    At the risk of bringing every damn thing I write back to the Enneagram, here we go. The Enneagram is commonly used simply as a personality typology. But its higher function is to bring each of us to a state of greater presence. It's the fixations of our type that prevent us from truly being present, from responding appropriately to what's actually going on in our immediate surroundings and in the world at large. Through compassionate, dedicated investigation, we can come to understand who's been pulling our strings all this time, and maaaaaaaybe begin to untangle ourselves. If we continue to interact from our usual fixated perspectives, our endeavours to improve the world will be marred, and not get as far as they need to.

  • Comment Link TJ Dawe Tuesday, 20 March 2012 00:25 posted by TJ Dawe

    Tracy - thanks so much. I'm not a philosopher, nor an academic either. And I see no reason why complex ideas can't be described and discussed in an accessible way. I'm grateful to writers like Gabor Mate and David Eagleman for doing so, and I'm happy to initiate conversations and spread their ideas in this forum, and in any other way I can. Great to know the ideas are connecting with you.

  • Comment Link Joachim Faust Wednesday, 21 March 2012 21:25 posted by Joachim Faust

    I hate to do this. In fact, I have to overcome my inner pig dog in order to do it, but here it is: the correct German word is "innerer Schweinehund" - two n's and one r, and a capital S. Can someone please correct this above and make sure that the world is in perfect order again? Well, or at least this excellent text, thanks to which I remembered how I was indeed always reminded, during my German childhood, that there will be no success ever if I can't "den inneren Schweinehund überwinden"! Still haven't succeeded :)

  • Comment Link TJ Dawe Wednesday, 21 March 2012 21:35 posted by TJ Dawe

    Joachim - it has been done. Thanks for pointing that out. And I looked up the original - the error was mine and not David Eagleman's. I'm a stickler for spelling and usage (ask any of the Beams contributors whose articles I've edited). My unfamiliarity with German helped this one slip by. I appreciate the correction. And now, as they say, Alles ist in Ordnung.

  • Comment Link Steeny Lou Thursday, 22 March 2012 05:26 posted by Steeny Lou

    A bit off topic, but...

    "Cankles" - LOL!

    That cracked me up.

    All serious and then "cankles" are mentioned.

    Good writing, writer!

  • Comment Link Sigga Lára Thursday, 22 March 2012 09:11 posted by Sigga Lára

    Thank you very much for that. I've been following Maté's writing for awhile.

    This also put me to mind, I wonder if there aren't may people to afraid of being impulsive. Where the order of the normal and "safe" has such a death grip of fear of the unknown that they spend their entire lives making sure to be good little slaves to the system.

    I think this group is probably larger, and probably in even more pain, but nobody notices 'cause it doesn't make trouble. But that's why, maybe, the pigdogs are running the show, in terms of control of societies.

    So, maybe some of us anxiety ridden (co-dependent) people need to practice loosening the control same frontal lobe a little? Our inner pigdogs are probably meek little poodles anyway. ;)

    I'm very happy to see these ideas are gaining ground. I think we have been attacking symptoms to much, when it comes to addictions, instead of looking for underlying problems.

  • Comment Link Bettina Vaello Thursday, 22 March 2012 15:04 posted by Bettina Vaello

    I find the use of the "innerer Schweinehunde" label a bit counter-productive. It seems to me that the best we are likely to do is pity or *try* to like the pig-dog part of ourselves when we use this image/label. When what needs to happen is that we comprehend the value of that aspect of ourselves and really love and appreciate how it is transformed and *normal* when held in balance.

    I think that it also needs to be said more clearly that the balance is lacking because of deficient early relational experiences, AND that the balance is restored through subsequent reparative relational experiences. Anything else is just a tug of war between the frontal lobes and the limbic region, when our goal is an integration of these regions. The relational experiences shape whether we develop ein Schweinehunde or not and whether we try to tame it or transform it into it's more natural state.

    Great essay otherwise!

  • Comment Link TJ Dawe Thursday, 22 March 2012 21:12 posted by TJ Dawe

    Steeny Lou - thanks. I see no reason why a serious intellectual subject can't be examined with humour and everyday language. We do it in conversation all the time. Why not in writing? Also - Gabor's book are pretty sombre, but in person and in interviews, he frequently cracks jokes.

    Sigga Lara - excellent point. Having an overriding superego causes problems of a different kind - Gabor's writings in When the Body Says No come to mind: suppression of one's needs builds up stress which compromises the immune system and increases susceptibility to all kinds of debilitating conditions. For some of us it's unthinkable to speak up for our own needs. That's a pigdog of another stripe.

    Bettina - I agree. I sacrificed clarity for the sake of a snappy title, and repeated motif in the article. Also because the term is just so striking.

    As I mentioned at the end of the piece, the goal isn't to banish one's pigdog, but to come into relationship with it. An image Gabor has used in his retreats and in Q & As is that we develop our ego structure, our personality, to help us survive our childhood. It has us behave in a certain way in order to get our attachment needs met. This might be by always asserting our will, or by never allowing ourselves to assert our will. It might be many other things. But this part of us acts like a big stupid friend who doesn't realize that the help they're offering doesn't help anymore. And they really do want to help. To characterize them as a friend does give a better picture than to characterize them as a pigdog. And it's necessary to understand this part of ourselves, because the function they fulfilled, at least for a certain amount of time, has a great deal to tell us about how we've come to interact with the world. And understanding that is the first step to doing something about it.

  • Comment Link Steeny Lou Thursday, 22 March 2012 21:54 posted by Steeny Lou

    That's one thing I love about Dr. Gabor - the down-to-earth way in which he communicates in his interviews.

    Actually, I find his writing to be very enjoyable to read. He words things so they flow very nicely, even with the painful subjects.

  • Comment Link TJ Dawe Thursday, 22 March 2012 23:14 posted by TJ Dawe

    Yes, his books are accessible to those who, like me, aren't fluent in the language of medicine or psychology. And they're just damn good reads on their own merit. The fact that he's such a good writer has helped spread some very important ideas to many people. Here's hoping this continues.

  • Comment Link Gregor Bingham Friday, 30 March 2012 15:59 posted by Gregor Bingham

    Hi TJ,
    I like to devour this stuff too, endlessly fascinating and um, addictive. :-)
    And, because I coach people, after reading this article, and the comments from David, my '5' mind starts making connections, in most ways to simplify my capacity to engage effectively with a clients goal. Always refining.
    Some of which are:
    1. The pig dog, connects to major aspects of Jung's Shadow, especially the inner argument between the short term and long term. As Jung would say, like we have come to realize, we must come into relationship with the shadow. As the analogy of the dog driving the car is, I once had a dream where my father was driving my car... I had some unpacking to do there!
    2. A great book to explore some of this too is Ginette Paris's Heartbreak. She uses depth psychology and neuroscience to blend in the ways or reptilian and mammalian brains deal with loss and heartbreak, and how our cortex is the 'wise human' whose responsibility it is to look after the 'puppy' mammalian brain, and to use mindfulness to filter the reactivity of the reptilian brain. Its a beautiful book, especially because seeing heartbreak and grief in this way show us HOW it taps into our addictive and obsessive well developed neural pathways, and why therefore we must create new ones. Powerful facts, and analogies.
    3. I was heartened by Alain Brunet's work on PTSD, as shown in the Norman Doidge CBC Documentary. This is the kind of clear process that I hope all of these scientists are working toward.
    4. It also reminded me of Naomi Klein's The Shock Doctrine, and Ken Wilber's statement about ‘when shit happens we all go down a level’. Our climate needs our cortex, and our pigdog and shadows are getting a real workout!
    5. Lastly, another book called The Talent Code by Daniel Coyle, is a great three step understanding of our need for creativity, play, hard work and coaching (haha). That the way we get good at something is by inspiration, then dedication by coaching – for mastery. Great stories in the book about how this works in various fields. I wonder how long it will take before a great cortex workout will really arrive, my pigdog wants it now! ☺

  • Comment Link TJ Dawe Friday, 30 March 2012 23:28 posted by TJ Dawe

    Gregor - thanks so much for these recommendations. I want to read all of these books now!

    In Integral terms, this upper right quadrant stuff is fascinating, especially when presented by thinkers who don't believe that the upper right is all there is. But it's definitely an important part, and deserving of our attention.

    The pigdog as the shadow is a great connection, too. If we try to banish our pigdog, we're going to make it bigger. Coming into relationship with it is the way to go. It's a part of me. It's there for a reason. It'll always be there. May as well see what I can do to understand it.

  • Comment Link Trevor Malkinson Friday, 06 April 2012 17:44 posted by Trevor Malkinson

    just a heads up that I've plugged a node into this piece over in the Bricolage section. More thoughts on that wily innerer Schweinehund.

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